Gender equality is common social dialogue with fundamental values and cross-cutting issues for the International Labour Organization. In the year of 2009, the International Labour Conference concluded its discussion on “Gender equality at the heart of decent work” by reaffirming that gender equality and tripartism are basic policy tools to advance gender equality in the world of work. This study is a part of a comparative research project whose objective is to show that gender equality and social dialogue are mutually beneficial and their promotion should go with proportional to each other. Even after several studies on each topic in separate, there is a knowledge gap of about a world on how gender equality issue at work is advanced through social dialogue. This study provides valuable information on India’s progress to improve its equal employment opportunities for women and men through its legislation, social dialogue and policies. Notwithstanding several achievements, the Indian society is still stuck by inequality, in particular based on gender and social definitions. National tripartite forums in India are not yet fully representative of the work-tension. Also they do not deal with gender equality issues in substance. Despite the challenge that the large informal sector represents for collective bargaining, the authors have presented some innovative practices of negotiation with cooperatives representing informal employees, in surplus to a pioneering study of branches galore collective agreements that contain provisions related to gender equality.
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Current scenario in India
India ranks 132 out of 187 countries on the gender inequality index – lower than Pakistan (123), according to the United Nations Development Program’s Human Development Report in the year 2013. The report concluded that all countries in South Asia, excluding Afghanistan, were a better place for women than in India, with Sri Lanka (75) topping them all. Nepal ranked 102nd and Bangladesh following in the 111th place. Gender inequality is tragic not because it excludes women from basic social opportunities, but because it also does gravely imperils the life prospects of coming generations. Indian families often prefer boys over girls, and female infanticide is tragically most common. Only 29% of Indian women above the age of 15 in 2011 were a part of the country’s labor force, compared to 80.7% men. In Parliament, only 10.9% of lawmakers are women, while in Pakistan 21.1% are women. In United States which ranks 42nd on the list, 57.5% women and 70.1% men are a part of the labor force. China ranked even better, at 35th. Only 26.6% women above 25 years received a secondary education in 2010, compared to 50.4% of men. Pakistan scored even lower, with 18.3% of women having received secondary education compared to 43.1% of men. In the U.S., 94.7% women have received a secondary education – a figure slightly higher than for men (94.3%). In China, this figure was 54.8% for women and 70.4% for men. In India, 200 women died for every 100,000 childbirths according to the report. The number was considerably lower (37 deaths) in China and in the U.S. even lower than that (21.)
Why is this problem arising
In developing countries Central government has to take responsibilities for guaranteeing equal opportunities to all class of citizens through Social Action and Social Development and cannot isolate itself from social responsibilities to upgrade life of poor and neglected citizens and withdraw from social service welfare plans. India is emerging as an economical consistent Nation, developing living standards of India population providing more health programs, Industrial development phenomenon, offering employment for everyone and growing as a big market for consumer product and service industry. The world is no longer a place divided into Developed and Developing countries, East and West, Men and Women and Rich and Poor. India is on the verge of implementing many social welfare reforms schemes and International partnership to use continued knowledge and resources to tackle social bad practices now prevalent in Indian society. Gender is a casually often referred term but gender discrimination is meant only for women, because females are the only victims of gender discrimination. Females are nearly 50 percent of the total population but their representation in a very low public life. Identifying female rights and trusting in their ability are crucial for women’s empowerment and development.
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Best Solutions to look forward
Education provides employment opportunity and increases income. Therefore educating women is the prime factor to combat gender discriminate and for the up-liftment of women. Employment gives the income and improves the economic position of the women. Employed women are given importance by the family members. Employment gives the economic independence for the women. In India, mostly, women in the young age – depends her father, in the medieval age. She has to be dependent on her husband and in the older age – depends on her son. Woman always depends on somebody for her Livelihoods hence, independent in economic aspects are imperative for women’s development. Empowering women with the help of education, laws and employment will force the society to acknowledge the women as an equal gender like male. Female also has all the potential and empowering women will reach out to use her abilities fulfillingly and mitigate the economic dependency of women. Women need self-confidence to fight against all the atrocities against her and to live self-satisfied life. So, boosting the morale along with the self-confidence of the women, is the key to eliminate the inferior complex of her. Mostly males make the importance decision in the family and also in the public, thus making women as voice less, destroying her confidence and she begins feeling less important in the family as well as in the society. So, to end gender discrimination women must empower with decision making power.
More Problems of India–
● Problems of Slums in India
● Problem of Corruption in India
● Poverty Problems and Solutions in India
● Population Problem in India
● Pollution Problems in India
● Political Problems in India
● Nutrition Problems in India
● Maoist Problem in India