Over the decades, there has been a substantial increase in contraceptive usage in India. The implication and emphasis of the Family Welfare Programs have changed over time. However, fulfilling the contraceptive requirements of average proportions of women and men and improving the quality of family planning services continue being a great challenge. The last decade witnessed an increasing recognition of this, and several innovative policy and program initiatives have been launched to address these issues. This paper reviews and synthesizes evidence from surveys and studies conducted in the last decade and on contraceptive use dynamics and the unmet need for contraception in India from then onwards. The paper also discusses some of the barriers that hindered the success of the program and throws light upon the newest initiatives to address these, and assesses their impact if any. The paper makes suggestions for areas that need further program and research attention. Financial investments in the program have drastically accelerated and service delivery points have significantly expanded. Services which are monitored by the program have been broadened to include immunization, pregnancy, delivery care, and curative health care. The different wide range of these so called contraceptive products brought to us through the program has widened. Multiple stakeholders, including the private sector and sectors which do not belong to government, have been allowed to work in providing contraceptive services.
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Current Scenario in India
India has many customizes various laws for families which belong to different religions and, yet, do not have landed upon goals about this important aspect of normal civil life. Muslims, Hindus, Christians, Sikhs, Jews, and Parsis, each community has their personal law which includes matters regarding personal relations and family practices like as marriage and divorce, adoption, maintenance, guardianship and custody of children, and inheritance and succession. There was virtually no scope to exit without being a member of a family. According to Census of India (Ministry of Home Affairs, 1991), Indian families comprise largely of nuclear family types along with some of the joint families consisting about a fifth of the total households according to the Census of India in the year 1981. In the year 1987, Kolenda researched the kinds of studies on various structures of families in India In 1995, more than 24,000 complaints were filed with the Crime against Women Cell, connecting to marital conflicts depending upon the cruelty to misappropriate conclusion of stridhan4. The situation continues to go further low. Latest reports indicate that crime against women rate is 34.1% A legal provision offers the elderly aged person to avail the maintenance from his/her children, if he or she has no resources of his/her own as per the Section 125 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, as cited in Diwan & Kumar, 1984. Even though, some of the parents choose to go to court to avail the maintenance from their children.
Why is this problem arising
Families in India are going through drastic changes such as increasing divorce and separation rates, domestic violence, inter-generational conflicts, social problems of drug abuse, juvenile delinquency etc. These changes indicate the inability to cope with the pressures of the so called newest modern life. But, the majority seem to have survived and have the ability to modify, adapt to changing social values and structures, and have displayed a salient strength in the task of keeping together ignoring the increasing stress and strain. Family studies have undergone several developments during the past few decades. Family studies in India are viewed within the institutional setting of pointed society. In each society, families differ in their aspect of adjusting to accept norms owing to the family interaction pattern and external forces. Research studies on the family conducted in India have stressed on different aspects of family life during the past few decades. That is, multiple forms, size, changing functions, roles etc. This kind of studies will be affected from the lack of applied value and multidisciplinary approach. The given review represents these problems by concentrating on the researches done on the various dimensions.
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Best Solutions to look forward
Family has been given a position of a basic unit of society and is a link between community and individual. The shape of the family continues to be following certain patterns. Number of changes have been deduced from the patterns of marriage such as age at marriage, inter-caste marriage, and many more. A relative increase is noticed in divorce in the case of urban areas. It was a normal easy-go situation previously but during that time families were much standard and provided adequate security in aspects of physical, social and also the emotional needs. Current trends indicate that there is a definite change in the basic structure of family, mainly the elders and quarrels in husband-wife relationship. Rates of issuing of divorce are testimony to the decreasing bonding of husband-wife relationship. Migration has major implications on women and children. Although children in several set-ups, women, and the elderlies have been the subjects of investigations on the family as a whole are clearly very particular and closed results. There seems to be a general scarcity of the system of applied family research in India. Thus it is important to deliberate whether these studies can be considered applied in nature – applied research is oriented towards outcome, apart from the concepts, and it starts on the edge of usefulness and also the way of application.
More Problems of India–
● Women Problems in India
● Water Problems in India
● Urban Problems in India
● Unemployment Problems in India
● Tribal Problems in India
● Transportation Problems in India
● Traffic Problems in India
● Sanitation Problems in India